Mitigation is reducing the consequence effect of an initiating event by barriers. An overview of types of barriers both (preventive) left and (protective) right of an initiating or critical event in a bowtie scheme can be found in e.g., Guldenmund et al.   Examples of protective and mitigative barriers can also be found in the CCPS LOPA Guidelines.

Measures taken to reduce a consequence arising from a disaster to a tolerable level are also found in other fields, such as aviation and civil protection.                     


–        Guldenmund F, Hale A, Goossens L, Betten J, Duijm NJ. The development of an audit technique to assess the quality of safety barrier management. J Hazard Mater 2006;130: 234-241

–        Center for Process Safety of AIChE in New York, layer of protection analysis, simplified process risk assessment. 2001. ISBN 0-8169-0811-7. See also the newer CCPS Guidelines for Initiating Events and Independent Protection Layers in Layer of Protection Analysis ISBN: 978-0-470-34385-2. February 2015.

–        Skybrary,, Accessed 10/23/2015

–        FEMA,, Accessed 10/23/2015