Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)

Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams are flow sheets that provide engineering details about equipment, instruments, piping, valves and fittings used in any process. Hence, they are also called engineering flow-sheets or engineering line diagrams.


–          Walas, S.M. (1990). Chemical Process Equipment – Selection and Design.

–           Towler, Gavin Sinnott, Ray K. (2013). Chemical Engineering Design – Principles, Practice and Economics of Plant and Process Design (2nd Edition).

Management/Process Safety Information and Knowledge/Process Design