Sprinkler

“Sprinklers are mechanical devices with nozzles used to distribute water by converting water pressure to a high-velocity discharge stream.”

Reference:(2011). Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook – A Plumbing Engineer’s Guide to System Design and Specifications, Volume 3 – Special Plumbing Systems – 4.4.1.1 Spray Sprinklers.American Society of Plumbing Engineers (ASPE). Online version available at:http://app.knovel.com/hotlink/pdf/id:kt00AE8HR4/plumbing-engineering-4/spray-sprinklers

“Sprinklers are intended to control fires, not necessarily to completely extinguish them. Therefore, some allowance is made for hose stream flows from hydrants or fire trucks when determining sprinkler system performance requirements. Sprinklers are usually laid out so that only a few need to be open to control a fire. Designs should not be based on the assumption that all sprinklers will operate simultaneously, unless there is reason to believe this is the case.”Reference: Bentley Systems Walski, Thomas M. Chase, Donald V. Savic, Dragan A. Grayman, Walter Beckwith, Stephen Koelle, Edmundo. (2007). Advanced Water Distribution Modeling and Management – 9.5.5 Fire Sprinklers.Bentley Institute Press. Online version available at:

http://app.knovel.com/hotlink/pdf/id:kt00U18BD1/advanced-water-distribution/fire-sprinklers

“The design of the sprinkler system is guided by regularly updated codes and standards, such as NFPA 13 and BS 9251.”References:Beard, Alan Carvel, Richard. (2012). Handbook of Tunnel Fire Safety (2nd Edition) – 8.2.The Principles of Fire Sprinklers. ICE Publishing. Online version available at: http://app.knovel.com/hotlink/pdf/id:kt00C71DJ1/handbook-tunnel-fire/principles-fire-sprinklers

An active fire protection measure, with perforations through which water issues from a hose to sprinkle.
Reference: S2S (safety to safety website)
Technical Tools/Risk Assessment/Semiquantitative Risk Analysis/Layer of Protection Analysis/Mitigation/Active System/Fire Suppression